CN107465189A  Virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia  Google Patents
Virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia Download PDFInfo
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 CN107465189A CN107465189A CN201710718113.9A CN201710718113A CN107465189A CN 107465189 A CN107465189 A CN 107465189A CN 201710718113 A CN201710718113 A CN 201710718113A CN 107465189 A CN107465189 A CN 107465189A
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Classifications

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
 H02J3/00—Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
 H02J3/01—Arrangements for reducing harmonics or ripples

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H02—GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
 H02J—CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
 H02J3/00—Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
 H02J3/18—Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks
 H02J3/1821—Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators
 H02J3/1835—Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators with stepless control
 H02J3/1842—Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators with stepless control wherein at least one reactive element is actively controlled by a bridge converter, e.g. active filters

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
 Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
 Y02E40/00—Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
 Y02E40/30—Reactive power compensation

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
 Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
 Y02E40/00—Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
 Y02E40/40—Arrangements for reducing harmonics
Abstract
The present invention relates to a kind of virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia, the combining inverter output in distributed power generation passes through filter inductance L_{f}With filter capacitor C in parallel_{f}Ac bus is connect, sampling obtains inverter output interface power output, voltage and current send virtual synchronous generator VSG algorithms, and the VSG calculated stator terminal voltage send outer voltage control, and outer voltage uses PI controller steady load voltages, filter capacitor C_{f}Current power delivery stream inner ring controls, and current inner loop improves response speed using P controller, and voltage and current double closedloop outputs a control signal to combining inverter, and the rotary inertia of virtual synchronous generator can adaptively change according to system frequency variable quantity in method.System transient modelling process is not only reduced, and counteracts a large amount of harmonic waves in system；Frequency and the stability of voltage can be improved, improve the adaptability and the quality of power supply of microcapacitance sensor.Avoid the problem of output frequency drops under conventional method.
Description
Technical field
It is more particularly to a kind of based on adaptive rotary inertia the present invention relates to a kind of virtual synchronous generator control technology
Virtual synchronous generator control method.
Background technology
The aggravation of energy and environment problem so that distributed power generation (Distributed generation, DG) and micro electricity
Net (microgrid) technology obtains extensive concern of knowing clearly.Distributed power generation mainly uses electronic power inverter, same with bulk power grid
Step generator, which is compared, very big difference in outside, for example capacity is smaller, and output impedance is lower, lacks system inertia.Can not be
Active distribution network containing micro battery provides the voltage of certain mass and frequency is supported.
Sagging (droop) control is distributed power generation control method the most frequently used in microcapacitance sensor.It passes through floating voltage width
The reference signal of degree and frequency, the output voltage and frequency of droop control device are adjusted by inverter, and reasonable distribution is active and idle
Power.However, droop control lacks rotatory inertia in implementation process, it is set to be difficult to provide necessary damping and frequency branch
Hold.In order to solve the above problems, virtual synchronous generator (Virtual Synchronous Generator, VSG) can simulate
The frequency of synchronous generator and the Principles of Regulation of voltage, to improve the stability of system.VSG combines synchronous generator and inversion
The characteristics of device, it is especially suitable for microcapacitance sensor and widely accepted.
The research of VSG control algolithms is approved by numerous scholars at present, but some problems are still had in practical application.
When realizing VSG, it is similar with droop control, using active and reactive power uneoupled control, i.e., frequency active power (Pf) and
Voltage and reactive power (QV) droop control method.On this basis, accuracy, stably of many scholars around VSG control methods
The problems such as property and economy, proposes improved control method.
The content of the invention
The present invention be directed to the problem of transient process length, quality of power supply difference be present in virtual synchronous generator, it is proposed that one
Virtual synchronous generator control method of the kind based on adaptive rotary inertia, after VSG structural principle is analyzed, it is proposed that one
The new adaptive rotary inertia scheme of kind.New departure not only reduces system transient modelling process, and counteracts a large amount of in system
Harmonic wave；So as to improve the VSG quality of power supply, the problem of output frequency drops under conventional method is avoided.Simulated experiment result is tested
The validity of this method is demonstrate,proved.
The technical scheme is that：A kind of virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia, point
Micro battery combining inverter output during cloth generates electricity passes through filter inductance L_{f}With filter capacitor C in parallel_{f}Ac bus is connect, is adopted
Output interface power output, voltage and current at sample acquisition inverter connection power network send virtual synchronous generator VSG algorithms, count
The VSG calculated stator terminal voltage send outer voltage control, and outer voltage uses PI controller steady load voltages, filter capacitor
C_{f}Current power delivery stream inner ring controls, and current inner loop improves response speed, voltage and current double closedloop output control letter using P controller
Number arrive combining inverter；Synchronized angular speed is ω_{o}It is sent into the active droop control ring of frequency of virtual speed regulator in VSG algorithms
Section, the active droop control link of frequency are output to the rotor motion characteristic link in virtual speed regulator, rotor motion characteristic link
The rotor inertia of synchronous generator and damping characteristic are simulated by rotor operation equation, virtual speed regulator output reference voltage
Phase send VSG electrically to realize；Rated reactive power Q_{ref}With the command value E of combining inverter extreme voltage_{ref}It is sent into VSG algorithms
The voltage and reactive power droop control link of excitation controller, excitation controller output virtual video gesture E send VSG electrically to realize,
VSG electrically realizes that Double closedloop of voltage and current is sent in output.
The rotor operation equation uses the rank model founding mathematical models of classics 2 of synchronous generator, and its expression formula is：
In formula：J is the rotary inertia of synchronous motor；T_{m}、T_{e}The respectively machine torque and electromagnetic torque of synchronous generator；D
For damped coefficient；ω_{o}For synchronized angular speed；P_{m}、P_{e}The respectively mechanical output of synchronous generator, electromagnetic power.
The autoadaptive function formula of the middle rotary inertia J is：
In formula：J_{0}The initial rotation inertia of stable operation is put into for VSG；k_{f}For frequencytracking coefficient；ω_{g}For LPF
Device parameter；K is frequency variation Δ f limit value, and it can be according to the frequency range and actual motion feelings of microcapacitance sensor quality requirement
Condition decision,
The variation delta f=of frequency  f50 , f is the actual operating frequency of system.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are：Virtual synchronous generator control side of the invention based on adaptive rotary inertia
Method, frequency and the stability of voltage can be improved, improve the adaptability and the quality of power supply of microcapacitance sensor.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the inverter control system structured flowchart based on VSG；
Fig. 2 be VSG it is activeFREQUENCY CONTROL block diagram；
Fig. 3 be VSG it is idlevoltage control block diagram；
Fig. 4 is the VSG controller architecture block diagrams of the invention based on adaptive rotary inertia；
Fig. 5 (a) is conventional VSG voltage oscillogram；
The voltage THD that Fig. 5 (b) is conventional VSG schemes；
Fig. 5 (c) is VSG of the present invention voltage oscillogram；
The voltage THD that Fig. 5 (d) is VSG of the present invention schemes；
Fig. 6 (a) is conventional VSG power waveform figure；
Fig. 6 (b) is VSG of the present invention power waveform figure；
When Fig. 7 is that load step changes, traditional control method and control method lower frequency of the present invention change comparison diagram.
Embodiment
In order that DG systems possess the characteristics of synchronous generator, avoid introducing the transient state variable of excessive synchronous generator,
The electromagnetic coupled relation of complexity is avoided, the present invention uses the rank model founding mathematical models of classics 2 of synchronous generator.Its expression formula
For：
In formula：J is the rotary inertia of synchronous motor；T_{m}、T_{e}The respectively machine torque and electromagnetic torque of synchronous generator；D
For damped coefficient；ω_{o}For synchronized angular speed；P_{m}、P_{e}The respectively mechanical output of synchronous generator, electromagnetic power.
Fig. 1 is the inverter control system structured flowchart based on VSG.The micro battery combining inverter output of distributed power generation
Pass through filter inductance L_{f}With filter capacitor C in parallel_{f}Connect ac bus, in figure, Z is load impedance, Z_{line}For the resistance of transmission line of electricity
It is anti, ω_{o}For synchronized angular speed, P_{t}、Q_{t}The active and reactive power of inverter reality output is represented, P, E, which represent process, to be had
Work(power, voltage, E_{0}、Q_{ref}Represent rated value, the rated value of reactive power of rated voltage.System main circuit uses threephase electricity
Potential source inverter, power output, voltage and current are obtained by connecting the output interface sampling at power network to inverter.By outer
The effect of ring power supply, produce control signal voltage of the reference voltage as voltage and current double closedloop.Voltage loop controller uses
PI controller algorithms, to ensure the influence of more preferable voltagetracing.Electric current loop adoption rate P control rings, by the use of capacitance current as
Controlled variable.
VSG algorithms in Fig. 1 include 3 virtual speed regulator (frequency controller), virtual excitation controller and VSG models portions
Point.The speed regulator, exciter control system and synchronous generator mechanical property and electrical characteristic of synchronous generator are simulated respectively, are led to
The collective effect of three control sections is crossed, reaches the purpose of simulation synchronous generator operation characteristic.Wherein virtual synchronous generator
VSG algorithms are the core of the control strategy, and virtual prime mover adjustment module simulates the primary frequency modulation characteristic of synchronous generator.
Fig. 2 is VSG frequency controller internal structure block diagram.It includes rotor motion characteristic link, active droop control
Two parts of link, it can make inverter that there is fm capacity with the phase information θ of output reference voltage, it is same so as to simulate
Walk the governor control characteristics of generator.
Activefrequency droop in Fig. 2 controls the expression formula to be：
P=P_{ref}+(ω_{0}ω)K_{P}
In formula：K_{p}For the sagging coefficient of active power.The calculation formula of sagging coefficient is：
In formula：P_{max}Allow the maximum active power of output when frequency declines for micro battery；ω_{min}Have for micro battery output
The maximum corresponding minimum frequency of work(power.
When being incorporated into the power networks, frequency setting value is consistent with system frequency, and sagging link will fail, FREQUENCY CONTROL major embodiment
For rotor motion characteristic.And when islet operation, bulk power grid no longer provides frequency support for power network, and microgrid frequency generally has one
Fixed fluctuation, now sagging link effect produce a secondary power, play the role of to reduce frequency fluctuation.
Fig. 3 is excitation controller internal structure block diagram.In figure, K_{q}Represent voltage droop control coefficient, K_{v}Represent voltageregulation
Coefficient, E_{m}、E_{ref}The actual value and command value of combining inverter extreme voltage are represented respectively.This part is equivalent to droop control calculation
Reactive Power Control loop in method.
Its expression can be write as：
E=E_{0}+(Q_{ref}Q)K_{q}
Excitation controller obtains reference voltage amplitude information.By using signal net amplitude, command voltage work can be produced
For the input of voltage loop.In the virtual excitation system of VSG Controlling models, virtual video gesture E is not only adjusted by reactive power
Influence, also to be influenceed by inverter set end voltage control signal Δ E.
Inverter set end voltage control signal Δ E can be equivalent to the automatic voltage regulator (Automatic of synchronous generator
Voltage Regulator, AVR), it may particularly denote for：
Δ E=(E_{ref}E_{m})K_{v}
VSG is that rotor operation equation (the rank model of classics 2 of synchronous generator is added on the basis of traditional droop control
Founding mathematical models) simulate the rotor inertia of synchronous generator and damping characteristic, i.e. the characteristics of VSG is than droop control maximum, is just
It is rotor inertia.When entering islet operation pattern, the frequency of microcapacitance sensor need to be controlled by itself.Microcapacitance sensor now is individual independent
Mini system, if its inertia very little, then a small amount of power swing will cause the significant frequency shift (FS) of system, in some instances it may even be possible to
Cause the collapse of whole system.Rotary inertia J is the exemplary parameter of rotor inertia, with microgrid service requirement and micro source and energy storage
The dynamic characteristic of device is closely related.But unlike synchronous generator, VSG J and nonactual existence, not by hardware condition
Limitation, value are relatively flexible.
Microcapacitance sensor is often accompanied by the disturbance of load in the process of running, and virtual inertia time constant J values are different, moved in frequency
Inverter will show different inertia during state regulation.J value is too small, and the inertia of microgrid system is now micro with regard to small
Small load fluctuation may cause the quick change of frequency；J value is bigger, brighter to the frequency supporting function of microgrid system
Aobvious, certainly, this also means that the dynamic response of system is slower, i.e. the time of frequency arrival stable state is also longer.
To make VSG have faster response speed in given changed power, closed with reference to hypothetical rotor inertia and power oscillation
The variable quantity (offset) of frequency is designated as by the relation of system, the present invention：
Δ f= f50 
In formula：F is the actual operating frequency of system.
As variable quantity, the autoadaptive function formula that rotary inertia J can be written is：
In formula：J_{0}The initial rotation inertia of stable operation is put into for VSG；k_{f}For frequencytracking coefficient；ω_{g}For LPF
Device parameter；K is frequency variation Δ f limit value, and it can be according to the frequency range and actual motion feelings of microcapacitance sensor quality requirement
Condition determines.
From rotary inertia J autoadaptive function formula, J adaptive value step is：First determine whether the skew of frequency
Relation between amount and setting numerical value k, if Δ f<K, now rotary inertia numerical value use J_{0}；If Δ f>K, now need to judge
Df/dt symbol：1. work as df/dt<0, using the rotary inertia for introducing filter parameter；2. work as df/dt>0, it is used using rotation
Numerical quantity is J_{0}。
This new adaptive rotary inertia method proposed by the present invention has the characteristics of following：
When there is no big disturbance when microcapacitance sensor stable operation, and among system, using the fixed number of traditional rotary inertia
Value J_{0}, VSG, which is run, meets the requirement of power, that is, using traditional fixation J when disturbing smaller in system_{0}Value can also reach will
Ask；
When there is larger load in system, and when the input of micro battery or excision, the frequency shift (FS) of system is more than setting number
Value, in order to reduce the problem of change of the frequency of system is brought, using the method for new rotary inertia；
Low pass filter unit is introduced in new rotary inertia, eliminates the uncertain factor in circuit, this controlling party
Method advantage is that system frequency stabilization can be kept in the case of load change；
After new VSG control methods start certain time, system tends towards stability, and frequency begins return to stable number
Value, at this time inverse change may occur for the rate of change of frequency, and now using traditional VSG control methods, (traditional rotation is used to
The fixed numbers J of amount_{0}) frequency retrieval effectively can be quickly allowed to rating number.
According to noted earlier, the structured flowchart of the New Virtual synchronous generator machine controller of inverter, such as Fig. 4 can be established
It is shown.In figure, U_{nref}And U_{abc}Respectively command voltage and load voltage, I_{L}And I_{o}Respectively inductive current and load current, U_{0}
For load current, K_{PWM}Represent the equivalent model of inverter.Outer voltage is using PI controller steady loads voltage, current inner loop
Response speed is improved using P controller, wherein, K_{up}、K_{ui}For the proportionality coefficient of Voltage loop PI controls, integral coefficient, K_{ip}For electric current
Ring proportionality coefficient.The control system of inverter includes active sagging regulation, idle sagging regulation, electrically rotor motion characteristic, reality
Now with voltage x current double loop control totally 5 part of module.Wherein, electric achievement unit subpackage contains resultant voltage part, synchronous electricity
2 rank voltage models of machine.
Voltage equation can be expressed as in 2 rank models of synchronous motor：
E^{*}=U_{nref}+I_{abc}(R_{a}+jX_{d})
In formula：E^{*}、U_{nref}、I_{abc}Respectively VSG excitation electric gesture, stator terminal voltage, stator current；R_{a}、X_{d}Respectively
VSG stator armature resistance, synchronous reactance.
Build the simulation model of VSG structures shown in Fig. 1 on MATLAB/Simulink software platforms herein, and according to
Analysis in text, is realized to selfadaptation control method, thus the correctness for the VSG control strategies that checking is carried herein.It is imitative
True systematic parameter value is shown in Table 1.
In order to verify the feasibility and validity of the adaptive rotary inertia VSG control strategies put forward herein, herein it
Emulation comparison is carried out with traditional VSG control strategies.
Fig. 5 (a), 5 (b), 5 (c), the working voltage feelings that 5 (d) is traditional VSG controls and adaptive rotary inertia VSG controls
Condition.Include in figure the voltage waveforms of a phases, threephase voltage total harmonic distortion (Total Harmonic Distortion,
THD)。
Contrasted from Fig. 5 (a) and Fig. 5 (c), the waveform of traditional VSG control methods is not entered under stable state
Wave distortion is serious, and stablizing later crest nearby also has harmonic wave；And the VSG control methods of adaptive rotary inertia integrally than
Traditional method is better, and the later waveform of stable state is closer to sine wave.
Contrasted from Fig. 5 (b) and Fig. 5 (d), conventional VSG controls are because using constant rotary inertia, VSG control systems
It is middle more harmonic wave to be present, its threephase voltage THD be 7.95%, and set forth herein new VSG control algolithms it can certain journey
Degree ground suppresses harmonic wave, and its threephase voltage THD is reduced to 4.81%.
Fig. 6 (a), 6 (b) are active waveform, the reactive power ripple of traditional VSG controls and adaptive rotary inertia VSG controls
Shape.Although numerically no significant difference sending active be 40kW, idle 15kVar to power before and after improving, inverse after improvement
Stable state can just be entered in 0.04s by becoming device, and traditional inverter enters stable state in 0.08s, and the transient state moment is long.
When Fig. 7 is load variations, frequency waveform corresponding to VSG control methods before and after improvement.Simulation time is 0.7s, just
The active power of load is 20kW during the beginning, active power increases to 30kW after reactive power 5kVar, 0.3s, reactive power is
10kVar, 0.6s active power return to 20kW, reactive power 5kVar.
As seen from Figure 7, load increase can all cause the decline of system frequency before and after improvement, this characteristic with traditional power network
It is identical.For VSG controls frequency there is also difference, the VSG after improvement can more rapidly enter stable state, increase in load before and after improvement
It can ensure that frequency is 49.9Hz in the case of big, and traditional VSG frequencies have been reduced to 49.75Hz, the VSG after improvement can more be approached
Work(frequency, contributes to being incorporated into the power networks for VSG.Therefore, this paper improvement VSG control methods more show in terms of systems stabilisation frequency
It is prominent, substantially increase the Stability and dependability of system.
Claims (3)
1. a kind of virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia, it is characterised in that in distributed power generation
Micro battery combining inverter output pass through filter inductance L_{f}With filter capacitor C in parallel_{f}Ac bus is connect, sampling obtains inversion
Output interface power output, voltage and current at device connection power network send virtual synchronous generator VSG algorithms, the VSG calculated
Stator terminal voltage send outer voltage control, outer voltage uses PI controller steady load voltages, filter capacitor C_{f}Electric current is sent
Current inner loop control, current inner loop improve response speed using P controller, and voltage and current double closedloop outputs a control signal to gridconnected
Inverter；
Synchronized angular speed is ω_{o}The active droop control link of frequency of virtual speed regulator in VSG algorithms is sent into, frequency is active
Droop control link is output to the rotor motion characteristic link in virtual speed regulator, and rotor motion characteristic link passes through rotor operation
Equation simulates the rotor inertia of synchronous generator and damping characteristic, and the phase of virtual speed regulator output reference voltage send VSG electric
Gas is realized；Rated reactive power Q_{ref}With the command value E of combining inverter extreme voltage_{ref}It is sent into excitation controller in VSG algorithms
Voltage and reactive power droop control link, excitation controller output virtual video gesture E send VSG electrically to realize, VSG is electrically realized
Double closedloop of voltage and current is sent in output.
2. the virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia according to claim 1, it is characterised in that
The rotor operation equation uses the rank model founding mathematical models of classics 2 of synchronous generator, and its expression formula is：
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In formula：J is the rotary inertia of synchronous motor；T_{m}、T_{e}The respectively machine torque and electromagnetic torque of synchronous generator；D is resistance
Buddhist nun's coefficient；ω_{o}For synchronized angular speed；P_{m}、P_{e}The respectively mechanical output of synchronous generator, electromagnetic power.
3. the virtual synchronous generator control method based on adaptive rotary inertia according to claim 2, it is characterised in that
The autoadaptive function formula of the middle rotary inertia J is：
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In formula：J_{0}The initial rotation inertia of stable operation is put into for VSG；k_{f}For frequencytracking coefficient；ω_{g}Join for low pass filter
Number；K is frequency variation △ f limit value, and it can determine according to the frequency range of microcapacitance sensor quality requirement with practical operation situation
It is fixed,
The variable quantity △ f=of frequency  f50 , f is the actual operating frequency of system.
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Cited By (14)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

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CN109301867A (en) *  20181016  20190201  北京机械设备研究所  A kind of virtual synchronous motor control method for simulating diesel generating set 
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